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A curious fact is that women in the world, and female mammals are born with a certain number of ovules. The “depletion of reserves” indicates the end of their reproductive age. Recently, a group of scientists conducted studies where they identified 290 areas of the human genome that influence the arrival of menopause. This has made it possible to extend fertility in mice by modifying the same genes. In the future, this information could allow us to know when reproductive senescence is going to occur, and even delay it.
In recent years, life expectancy in the most developed countries has gone from 45 to 85 years. But the end of the reproductive age for women remains the same. Around 47-52 years of age. World scientists have studied the genomes of more than half a million women conserved in various databases. Looking for variations in DNA that were related to a late or early onset of menopause. 290 variants were found in these women with an end of reproductive life far from the middle age. Out by default or excess. It was pointed out that some changes in certain genes are associated with a late menopause of at least 3 years. Although there are also other mutations that carry an advance.
“Most of the genes that we were able to identify out of these 290 are involved in repairing damaged DNA. We found DNA repair genes related to the onset of menopause that work in several different ways. From the DNA replication stage when the egg reserve is generated, to the repair of breaks in the DNA that are made to introduce genetic variability in the eggs during a process called meiosis. Also in fetal stages. ” Mentions Ignasi Roig from the Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine. “When a cell suffers DNA damage, the DNA repair machinery activates mechanisms that block cell cycle progression to give the cell time to repair the damage. If this cannot occur, apoptosis mechanisms are activated in order to eliminate this damaged cell and avoid problems for the body. In the same way, these processes also occur in the ovules. ” He says.
All this fresh information has allowed scientists to change the reproductive life span of mice modified to carry one of these mutations. And thus block or activate certain genes. In the long term, these findings could help predict which women are most at risk for early menopause. The same mechanisms that affect the time of menopause are involved in DNA repair and cell death. “We hope that our work will help provide new possibilities to help women plan for the future. By finding many more of the genetic causes of variability in the onset of menopause. We have shown that we can begin to predict which women might have early menopause, and therefore struggle to get pregnant naturally.